Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological and environmental variables that all play a role in the longevity of women over males, we aren’t sure the extent to which each factor plays a role.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور (relevant website) men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal line of parity – which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

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The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in rich countries as compared to the present.

Let’s look at how the advantage of women in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small, but it grew substantially during the last century.

It is possible to verify that the points you’ve listed are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.